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Response and recovery of gibel carp from subchronic oral administration of aflatoxin B₁

Huang, Ying, Han, Dong, Zhu, Xiaoming, Yang, Yunxia, Jin, Junyan, Chen, Yifeng, Xie, Shouqi
Aquaculture 2011 v.319 no.1-2 pp. 89-97
Carassius gibelio, aflatoxin B1, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, body weight, carp, cholesterol, diet, exposure duration, feed conversion, feeding level, fish feeding, hematocrit, mortality, muscles, oral administration, physiological response, proteins, superoxide dismutase
A 16-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) on growth, physiological responses, histological changes, and accumulation in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), and the recovery when the fish were fed basal diet without supplemental chemical AFB₁. Triplicate groups of gibel carp with initial body weight of 10.33±0.19g were fed seven semipurified diets (Diets 1 to 7) designed to contain 0, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 1000μg AFB₁ kg⁻¹diet (determined level was 3.2, 11.3, 20.2, 55.2, 95.8, 176.0, 991.5μg AFB₁ kg⁻¹diet, respectively) for 12weeks. Subsequently, all fish were fed Diet 1 for another 4weeks. The results showed that, after 12weeks of AFB₁ exposure, average body weight in fish fed Diet 4 was 112.3% of that of the control group (Diet 1), but there was no significant difference between other groups and the control group. No external changes, unusual behavior or significant difference in mortality were observed in the fish fed with various levels of AFB₁. There was no significant difference in feeding rate (FR) between the control and experimental groups. Specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency (FE) of the fish fed with Diet 4 was significantly higher than that fed the control diet during the first exposure period (weeks 0–4) while there were no significant difference during the second exposure period (weeks 5–12). Fish fed with various levels of AFB₁ showed no significant differences in activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total protein, total serum cholesterol, and hematocrit compared to the control group. No significant histological lesions were identified between the control and increasing AFB₁ treatments. Low AFB₁ residues were found in muscles, whereas high residues of AFB₁ were determined in hepatopancreas (above the safety limitation of 5μgkg⁻¹), which was logarithmically related to the dietary AFB₁ levels. Our results indicate that gibel carp is a less susceptible species to AFB₁ exposure up to approximately 1000μg AFB₁ kg⁻¹diet, at least for 12weeks. The fish also showed strong clearance ability of AFB₁ during recovery period.