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Heterotrimeric Gα subunit from wheat (Triticum aestivum), GA3, interacts with the calcium-binding protein, Clo3, and the phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, PI-PLC1

Khalil, Hala Badr, Wang, Zhejun, Wright, Justin A., Ralevski, Alexandra, Donayo, Ariel O., Gulick, Patrick J.
Plant molecular biology 2011 v.77 no.1-2 pp. 145-158
G-proteins, Triticum aestivum, acclimation, calcium-binding proteins, endoplasmic reticulum, genes, guanosinetriphosphatase, phospholipase C, plant response, plant stress, plasma membrane, protein-protein interactions, stress response, wheat
The canonical Gα subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein complex from wheat (Triticum aestivum), GA3, and the calcium-binding protein, Clo3, were revealed to interact both in vivo and in vitro and Clo3 was shown to enhance the GTPase activity of GA3. Clo3 is a member of the caleosin gene family in wheat with a single EF-hand domain and is induced during cold acclimation. Bimolecular Fluorescent Complementation (BiFC) was used to localize the interaction between Clo3 and GA3 to the plasma membrane (PM). Even though heterotrimeric G-protein signaling and Ca2+ signaling have both been shown to play a role in the response to environmental stresses in plants, little is known about the interaction between calcium-binding proteins and Gα. The GAP activity of Clo3 towards GA3 suggests it may play a role in the inactivation of GA3 as part of the stress response in plants. GA3 was also shown to interact with the phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, PI-PLC1, not only in the PM but also in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Surprisingly, Clo3 was also shown to interact with PI-PLC1 in the PM and ER. In vitro analysis of the protein–protein interaction showed that the interaction of Clo3 with GA3 and PI-PLC1 is enhanced by high Ca2+ levels. Three-way affinity characterizations with GA3, Clo3 and PI-PLC1 showed the interaction with Clo3 to be competitive, which suggests that Clo3 may play a role in the Ca2+-triggered feedback regulation of both GA3 and PI-PLC1. This hypothesis was further supported by the demonstration that Clo3 has GAP activity with GA3.