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Blood plasma clinical–chemical parameters as biomarker endpoints for organohalogen contaminant exposure in Norwegian raptor nestlings
- Sonne, Christian, Bustnes, Jan O., Herzke, Dorte, Jaspers, Veerle L.B., Covaci, Adrian, Eulaers, Igor, Halley, Duncan J., Moum, Truls, Ballesteros, Manuel, Eens, Marcel, Ims, Rolf A., Hanssen, Sveinn A., Erikstad, Kjell E., Johnsen, Trond V., Rigét, Frank F., Jensen, Asger L., Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads
- Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2012 v.80 pp. 76-83
- Haliaeetus leucocephalus, adults, albumins, bilirubin, biochemical pathways, biomarkers, birds of prey, blood plasma, breeding season, calcium, chlordane, cholesterol, correlation, creatinine, eagles, enzymes, flame retardants, glucose, hexachlorobenzene, liver, magnesium, perfluorocarbons, phosphates, polychlorinated biphenyls, potassium, reproductive toxicology, sodium, thyroid hormones, urea
- Raptors are exposed to biomagnifying and toxic organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) such as organochlorines, brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds. To investigate how OHC exposure may affect biochemical pathways we collected blood plasma from Norwegian northern goshawk (n=56), golden eagle (n=12) and white-tailed eagle (n=36) nestlings during three consecutive breeding seasons. We found that blood plasma concentrations of calcium, sodium, creatinine, cholesterol, albumin, total protein, urea, inorganic phosphate, protein:creatinine, urea:creatinine and uric acid:creatinine ratios and liver enzymes ALKP and ALAT were positively correlated to PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, HCB, PFCs and/or PBDEs. Total bilirubin and glucose were negatively correlated to PCBs while magnesium and potassium were negatively correlated to HCB and p,p′-DDE. In addition, protein:creatinine and ALAT were also negatively correlated to PCBs and PFCs, respectively. The most significant relationships were found for the highly contaminated northern goshawks and white-tailed eagles. The statistical relationships between OHCs and BCCPs indicate that biochemical pathways could be influenced while it is uncertain if such changes have any health effects. The OHC concentrations were below concentrations causing reproductive toxicity in adults of other raptor species but similar to those of concern for endocrine disruption of thyroid hormones in e.g., bald eagles.