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Sublethal Effects of Spinosad (Tracer®) on the Cotton Leafworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Abouelghar, Gamal Elsayed, Sakr, Hanem, Ammar, Hager Ali, Yousef, Adel, Nassar, Moustafa
Journal of plant protection research 2013 v.53 no.3 pp. 275
Spodoptera littoralis, active ingredients, antifeedants, castor beans, cotton, epithelium, fecundity, females, growth retardation, histopathology, larvae, leaves, lethal concentration 50, peritrophic membrane, population dynamics, pupae, pupation, spinosad, sublethal effects
The effects of sublethal concentrations of spinosad (Tracer®) on development, fecundity, and food utilization, in the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) were investigated. The fourth-instar larvae were fed on castor bean leaves treated with LC₂₅ (13.9 ppm) or LC₅₀ (57.8 ppm) of spinosad. Pupation and pupal weight were significantly reduced in both LC₂₅ and LC₅₀ treatments, compared with those of the controls. The fecundity rates of females in either LC₂₅ or LC₅₀ treatment were also reduced, compared with the controls. The residual activity of spinosad, applied on cotton at labeled field- and subfield-rates (200 and 70 g active substance (a.s.)/ 200 l water, respectively), was examined against the fifth-instar larvae of S. littoralis. Feeding deterrent effects were significantly demonstrated in larvae that fed on leaves collected from field plots with residual deposits of spinosad at 3 and 7 days old after application (DAA). The residual activity of spinosad on feeding and other metabolic parameters was decreased after 21 DAA indicating that the chemical started to degrade under field conditions. A histological study on midgut from larvae that previously fed on leaves treated with a concentration corresponding to the labeled-field rate of spinosad showed some alterations occurred after 48 and 96 h of treatment, compared to the normal midgut from the controls. The histological alterations included degeneration in the epithelial lining of the midgut and in the peritrophic matrix. Such histopathological effects are presumed to be responsible for the reduction in growth and food utilization caused by spinosad. It is, therefore, concluded that spinosad has sublethal effects on S. littoralis that may affect population dynamics in the field via reductions in survival and reproduction