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Orchestration of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in brassinosteroid‐mediated systemic virus resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana

Deng, Xing‐Guang, Zhu, Tong, Zou, Li‐Juan, Han, Xue‐Ying, Zhou, Xue, Xi, De‐Hui, Zhang, Da‐Wei, Lin, Hong‐Hui
The plant journal 2016 v.85 no.4 pp. 478-493
NAD(P)H oxidase (H2O2-forming), NADP (coenzyme), Nicotiana benthamiana, brassinosteroids, genes, hydrogen peroxide, leaves, nitrate reductase, nitric oxide, nitroprusside, plant growth, signal transduction, stress response, viruses
Brassinosteroids (BRs) play essential roles in modulating plant growth, development and stress responses. Here, involvement of BRs in plant systemic resistance to virus was studied. Treatment of local leaves in Nicotiana benthamiana with BRs induced virus resistance in upper untreated leaves, accompanied by accumulations of H₂O₂ and NO. Scavenging of H₂O₂ or NO in upper leaves blocked BR‐induced systemic virus resistance. BR‐induced systemic H₂O₂ accumulation was blocked by local pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase or silencing of respiratory burst oxidase homolog gene NbRBOHB, but not by systemic NADPH oxidase inhibition or NbRBOHA silencing. Silencing of the nitrite‐dependent nitrate reductase gene NbNR or systemic pharmacological inhibition of NR compromised BR‐triggered systemic NO accumulation, while local inhibition of NR, silencing of NbNOA1 and inhibition of NOS had little effect. Moreover, we provide evidence that BR‐activated H₂O₂ is required for NO synthesis. Pharmacological scavenging or genetic inhibiting of H₂O₂ generation blocked BR‐induced systemic NO production, but BR‐induced H₂O₂ production was not sensitive to NO scavengers or silencing of NbNR. Systemically applied sodium nitroprusside rescued BR‐induced systemic virus defense in NbRBOHB‐silenced plants, but H₂O₂ did not reverse the effect of NbNR silencing on BR‐induced systemic virus resistance. Finally, we demonstrate that the receptor kinase BRI1(BR insensitive 1) is an upstream component in BR‐mediated systemic defense signaling, as silencing of NbBRI1 compromised the BR‐induced H₂O₂ and NO production associated with systemic virus resistance. Together, our pharmacological and genetic data suggest the existence of a signaling pathway leading to BR‐mediated systemic virus resistance that involves local Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homolog B (RBOHB)‐dependent H₂O₂ production and subsequent systemic NR‐dependent NO generation.