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Electromembrane extraction using two separate cells: A new design for simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic compounds

Nojavan, Saeed, Asadi, Sakine
Electrophoresis 2016 v.37 no.4 pp. 587-594
correlation, electrophoresis, hexanols, ibuprofen, ketamine, liquid membranes, mixing, pH, urine, wastewater
Simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic analytes from a sample is seen to be a challenging task. In this work, a novel and efficient electromembrane extraction (EME) method based on two separate cells was applied to simultaneously extract and preconcentrate two acidic drugs (naproxen and ibuprofen) along with a basic drug (ketamine). Once both cells were filled with the sample solution, basic drug was extracted from one cell with the other cell used to extract acidic drugs. The employed supported liquid membranes for the extraction of acidic and basic drugs were 2‐ethyl hexanol and 1‐octanol, respectively. Under an applied potential of 250 V in the course of the extraction process, acidic, and basic drugs were extracted from a 3.0 mL aqueous sample solution into 25 μL acceptor solutions. The pH values of the donor and acceptor solutions in the cathodic cell were 5.0 and 1.5, respectively, the corresponding values in the anodic cell were, however, 8.0 and 12.5, respectively. The rates of recovery obtained within 20 min of extraction time at a stirring rate of 750 rpm ranged from 45 to 54%. With correlation coefficients ranging from 0.990 to 0.996, the proposed EME technique provided good linearity over a concentration range of 20–1000 ng/mL. The LOD for all drugs was found to be 6.7 ng/mL, while reproducibility ranged from 7 to 12% (n = 5). Finally, applying the proposed method to determine and quantify the drugs in urine and wastewater samples, satisfactory results were achieved.