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Taxonomy, distribution and biology of lettuce powdery mildew (Golovinomyces cichoracearum sensu stricto)

Lebeda, A., Mieslerov√°, B.
Plant pathology 2011 v.60 no.3 pp. 400-415
Cichorium, Fallopia, Lactuca sativa, cultivars, environmental factors, fungi, fungicide resistance, genetic resistance, geographical distribution, host-pathogen relationships, leaves, lettuce, myclobutanil, neem extracts, neem oil, pathogens, powdery mildew, quinoline, races, spatial data, systemic acquired resistance, taxonomy, virulence, weather
This paper reviews the taxonomy, biology, importance, host-pathogen interactions and control of lettuce powdery mildew. The main causal agent of this disease, Golovinomyces cichoracearum s.s., is an important powdery mildew pathogen of many members of the family Asteraceae. The pathogen is distributed worldwide and occurs on Lactuca sativa as well as wild Lactuca spp. and related taxa (e.g. Cichorium spp.). Powdery mildew of lettuce can be a major problem in production areas with favourable environmental conditions for disease development (dry, hot weather). The fungus grows ectophytically and appears as white, powdery growth on both the upper and lower sides of leaves. There is rather limited information on the geographic distribution of powdery mildew on wild Lactuca spp. Most L. sativa cultivars have been found to be susceptible. Large variability in virulence was confirmed and existence of different races is supposed. Resistance in L. sativa and some related wild Lactuca spp. is characterized by race-specificity, but the genetic background of resistance is poorly understood. Sources of resistance are known in L. saligna and L. virosa. Lettuce powdery mildew can be effectively controlled by common fungicides (e.g. sulphur, myclobutanil, quinoline, strobilurins, etc.) and protective compounds (e.g. extract of neem oil, Reynoutria sachaliensis extracts). However, fungicide resistance may arise. Non-fungicidal activators of plant systemic acquired resistance (SAR) had no direct effect on the causal agent. Future issues regarding lettuce powdery mildew research are summarized.