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Studies on the impact of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in relation to malaria and filariasis vector control against Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

Subarani, Selladurai, Sabhanayakam, Selvi, Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal
Parasitology research 2013 v.112 no.2 pp. 487-499
Anopheles stephensi, Catharanthus roseus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Poecilia reticulata, X-radiation, X-ray diffraction, absorption, alkenes, carboxylic acids, chemical composition, filariasis, larvae, leaf extracts, malaria, mortality, nanoparticles, new methods, particle size, primary amines, reducing agents, scanning electron microscopy, silver, transmission electron microscopy, vector control
Biosynthesized nanoparticles have been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was based on assessments of the larvicidal activities to determine the efficacies of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Vinca rosea (L.) (Apocynaceae) against the larvae of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of V. rosea and synthesized AgNPs for 24, 48, and 72 h. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using the leaf extract of V. rosea, and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 15 min. The results recorded from UV–Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The formation of the AgNPs synthesized from the XRD spectrum compared with the Bragg reflections at 2θ = 29.36, 38.26, 44.51, 63.54, and 77.13° which can be indexed to the (121), (111), (200), (220), and (311) orientations, respectively, confirmed the presence of AgNPs. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at the spectra showed sharp and strong absorption band at 3,406.71 to 3,431.90 cm⁻¹ double in case of NH₂ group of a primary amine (N–H stretch). The presence of the sharp peak at 2,926.54 to 2,925.80 cm⁻¹ very broad often looks like distorted baseline (O–H carboxylic acids). The band 1,633.26 to 1,625.81 cm⁻¹ was assigned to C = C alkenes, aromatic ring stretching vibration, respectively. SEM analysis of the synthesized AgNPs clearly showed the clustered and irregular shapes, mostly aggregated and having the size of 120 nm. TEM reveals spherical shape of synthesized AgNPs. Particle size analysis revealed that the size of particles ranges from 25 to 47 nm with average size of 34.61 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized AgNPs. In larvicidal activity, the results showed that the maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the fourth instar larvae of A. stephensi (LC₅₀ = 12.47 and 16.84 mg/mL and LC₉₀ = 36.33 and 68.62 mg/mL) on 48 and 72 h of exposure and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC₅₀ = 43.80 mg/mL and LC₉₀ = 120.54 mg/mL) on 72-h exposure, and aqueous extract showed 100 % mortality against A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus (LC₅₀ = 78.62 and 55.21 mg/mL and LC₉₀ = 184.85 and 112.72 mg/mL) on 72-h exposure at concentrations of 50 mg/mL, respectively. The AgNPs did not exhibit any noticeable toxicity on Poecilia reticulata after 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure. These results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus. This method is considered as a new approach to control vectors. Therefore, this study provides the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of V. rosea synthesized AgNPs against vectors.