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Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant producing Bacillus sp. from diesel fuel-contaminated site

Yadav, Ankit Kumar, Manna, Suman, Pandiyan, K., Singh, Arjun, Kumar, Murugan, Chakdar, Hillol, Kashyap, Prem Lal, Srivastava, Alok Kumar
Microbiology 2016 v.85 no.1 pp. 56-62
Bacillus flexus, absorption, agar, alkanes, aromatic compounds, bacteria, bioremediation, biosurfactants, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, diesel fuel, emulsifiers, emulsifying, enrichment culture, lipopeptides, phylogeny, pipelines, pollutants, polluted soils, screening, soil pollution, spectroscopy, surface tension, tanks, toxic substances
Among hydrocarbon pollutants, diesel oil is a complex mixture of alkanes and aromatic compounds which are often encountered as soil contaminants leaking from storage tanks and pipelines or as result of accidental spillage. One of the best ecofriendly approaches is to restore contaminated soil by using microorganisms able to degrade those toxic compounds in a bioremediation process. In the present study, nineteen bacteria were isolated by enrichment culture technique from diesel spilled soil collected from electric generator shed of NBAIM, Mau. All the isolates were subjected to screening for lipase production and twelve isolates were found to be positive for lipase. When the isolates were screened for biosurfactant production using CTAB-methylene blue agar plates, only one isolate viz. 2NBDSH3 was found positive which was found to be phylogenetically closely related with Bacillus flexus. Despite having low emulsification index, the bacterium could degrade 88.6% of diesel oil in soil. Biosurfactant from the isolate was extracted and characterized through infra-red spectroscopy which indicated its possible lipopeptide nature which was further supported by strong absorption in UV range in the UV-Vis spectrum. The results of the present study indicated that the isolate either does not produce any bioemulsifier or produces very low amount of emulsifier rather it produces a lipopeptide biosurfactant which helps in degradation of diesel oil by lowering the surface tension. The bacterium thus isolated and characterized can serve as a promising solution for ecofriendly remediation of bacterium diesel contaminated soils.