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Two new lineages of aquatic ascomycetes: Atractospora gen. nov. and Rubellisphaeria gen. et sp. nov., and a sexual morph of Myrmecridium montsegurinum sp. nov.

Réblová, M., Fournier, J., Štěpánek, V.
Mycological progress 2016 v.15 no.3 pp. 21
new genus, freshwater, Sordariomycetidae, ascomata, species identification, loci, wood, introduced species, ascospores, Bayesian theory, asci, neck, streams, monophyly, new species, new combination, habitats, fungi
Two new genera, Atractospora and Rubellisphaeria, are described for perithecial ascomycetes occurring on decaying wood submerged in freshwater habitats. Their relationships with other morphologically similar fungi were investigated utilising four nuclear ribosomal and protein-coding loci. They are nested together with members of five orders and families and numerous genera incertae sedis in the Sordariomycetidae in a clade supported by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. Their closest relative is Lentomitella. Atractospora includes species characterised by dark, immersed to semi-immersed beaked ascomata lying horizontally to the host, stipitate asci with a pronounced non-amyloid apical annulus and hyaline, fusiform, septate, thick-walled ascospores with smooth or ornamented wall. Three novel species are introduced (A. decumbens, A. reticulata and A. verruculosa). A new combination for Aquaticola ellipsoidea is proposed in Atractospora based on molecular data and morphological characters. Rubellisphaeria, with a new species R. abscondita, is distinct by subhyaline to reddish brown, immersed ascomata with a lateral neck, short-stipitate asci and ellipsoidal smooth ascospores with a delayed formation of a middle septum. The sexual morph of the dematiaceous hyphomycete genus Myrmecridium was encountered for the first time on decaying wood submerged in a stream. It is nested in a strongly supported monophyletic clade of the Myrmecridiales. The novel species M. montsegurinum is described; it possesses papillate ascomata immersed beneath a clypeus with subhyaline to weakly pigmented ascomatal wall, long-stipitate asci with a non-amyloid apical annulus and three-septate, hyaline, ellipsoidal, delicately verruculose ascospores. A morphology-based key is provided to facilitate identification of species of Atractospora.