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Composition of Azadirachta indica and Carapa procera (Meliaceae) seed oils and cakes obtained after oil extraction

Djenontin, Tindo Sébastien, Wotto, Valentin D., Avlessi, Félicien, Lozano, Paul, Sohounhloué, Dominique K.C., Pioch, Daniel
Industrial crops and products 2012 v.38 pp. 39-45
Azadirachta indica, Carapa procera, amino acid composition, aspartic acid, fatty acid composition, gas chromatography, iodine value, leucine, lipid content, oilseed cakes, oleic acid, protein content, saponification, seed oils, sugars, Benin
Samples of Azadirachta indica and Carapa procera seeds collected in Benin have been analyzed and the results are compared to scarce literature data. The extracted lipids (44.0 and 61.5%, respectively) were examined for fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. The most interesting feature is the very high oil content and the prominent concentration of oleic acid (59.1%) of C. procera seed oil. Oleic (43.5%), linoleic (18.7%), palmitic (17.8%) and stearic (17.4%) acids were the predominant fatty acids in A. indica seed oil, while palmitic (21.1%) and oleic acids (59.1%) were the major acids in C. procera seed oil, this leading to saponification values of 167 and 188 and iodine values of 75 and 69, respectively. Among the unsaponifiable fraction (1.2 and 1.6%, respectively), whose composition has never been reported to date – except the sterol fraction of A. indica – the major sterol is β-sitosterol (77.7 and 61.2%). Tocols (298 and 92ppm respectively) show α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol as major components (30.8 and 67.3%; 32.5 and 12.2%, respectively). Regarding the cake, results show the interesting content of proteins (31.4 and 20.2%) comprising 17 amino acids with the prominent concentration of arginine, leucine, aspartic and glutamic acids and a noticeable amount of sugars (9.6 and 12.4%). Total ash in cake amounts 5.3 and 8.3%, primarily N and K, but C. procera shows a noticeable amount of Na (1574ppm). Possible uses of oils and cakes are discussed.