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Abrogation of nimesulide induced oxidative stress and mitochondria mediated apoptosis by Fumaria parviflora Lam. extract

Tripathi, Madhulika, Singh, Brijesh Kumar, Raisuddin, Sheikh, Kakkar, Poonam
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2011 v.136 no.1 pp. 94-102
in vivo studies, herbs, DNA damage, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, silymarin, honey, oxidative stress, Fumaria parviflora, diarrhea, biomarkers, gene expression, mitochondria, apoptosis, critical control points, messenger RNA, membrane potential, caspases, superoxide dismutase, rats, histopathology, liver, pain, glutathione-disulfide reductase, flow cytometry, glutathione peroxidase, cytochrome c, influenza, fever, hepatotoxicity
ETHANOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fumaria parviflora Lam. is used for treating aches and pains, diarrhea, fever, influenza and other complications. The herb mixed with honey is taken to prevent vomiting as per Ayurvedic text. AIM OF THE STUDY: In vivo studies were conducted to explore the hepatoprotective potential of Fumaria parviflora Lam. Fp extract against nimesulide induced oxidative stress and regulation of critical events in mitochondria mediated apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Group of Wistar rats were fed with nimesulide for 5 days (80mg/kg/day, po), another group was pre-treated with Fp extract/silymarin (200mg/kg/day, po) for 5 days followed by nimesulide exposure. Liver serum biomarkers and histopathology were done to assess hepatotoxicity caused by nimesulide. Antioxidant enzymes (SOD, LPO, GPx, GR) were assessed using biochemical assays as well as gene expression by RT-PCR. GSH content and ROS generation was also evaluated using flow cytometry. Key apoptotic markers like phosphatidyl serine externalization, Bax, Bcl-2 translocation, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, caspases (9/3) activation and DNA damage were also observed in all the groups to confirm involvement of mitochondrial pathway. RESULTS: Pre-treatment with Fp extract for 5 days significantly reduced the impact of nimesulide induced toxicity as evident from the serum biomarkers of liver damage and histopathology. It also modulated antioxidant enzymes mRNA expression as well as activity (SOD, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase) and reduced lipid peroxidation during nimesulide toxicity. Nimesulide exposure decreased GSH content (92.9%) and increased reactive oxygen species (9.29 fold) which was attenuated in Fp treated rats. Fp pre-treatment significantly altered key apoptotic events like Bcl2 and Bax translocation, inhibited mitochondrial depolarization, prevented cytochrome c release, caspase-9/caspase-3 activation and DNA damage. CONCLUSION: Our in vivo findings regarding protection accorded by Fp extract against nimesulide toxicity suggest that Fp not only reduced hepatotoxicity but attenuated critical control points of apoptotic cell death.