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Dynamics of nuclear receptor target gene regulation
- Carlberg, Carsten, Seuter, Sabine
- Chromosoma 2010 v.119 no.5 pp. 479-484
- DNA-directed RNA polymerase, binding sites, genes, messenger RNA, receptors, transcription (genetics), transcription factors, vitamin D
- Ligand-regulated nuclear receptors, such as estrogen receptors, glucocorticoid receptor, vitamin D receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, belong to the most widely studied and best understood transcription factors. Therefore, the dynamic nature of transcriptional regulation was observed first with different members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, but is now also extended to other transcription factors, such as nuclear factor κB. Dynamic and in part cyclical processes were observed on the level of translocation into the nucleus, association with genomic binding sites, exchange of co-regulators and chromatin modifiers, occurrence of chromatin marks, and activities of RNA polymerase II resulting in mRNA synthesis. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the dynamic regulation of nuclear receptor target genes in the chromatin context.