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Improved Estimation of Oil, Linoleic and Oleic Acid and Seed Hull Fractions in Safflower by NIRS

Rudolphi, Sabine, Becker, Heiko C., Schierholt, Antje, von Witzke-Ehbrecht, Sabine
journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 2012 v.89 no.3 pp. 363-369
screening, lipid content, Carthamus tinctorius, linoleic acid, plant breeding, seeds, equations, seed oils, near-infrared spectroscopy, genotype, seed quality, gas chromatography, oleic acid, hulls
Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) of intact seeds allows the non-destructive estimation of seed quality parameters which is highly desirable in plant breeding. Together with yield, oil content and quality, a main aim in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) breeding is the selection of genotypes with a low percentage of empty seeds even under cooler climates. We developed NIRS calibrations for seed oil content, oleic and linoleic acid content, the seed hull fraction and the percentage of empty seeds using seed meal and intact seeds. For the different calibrations 108–534 samples from a safflower breeding program with lines adapted to German conditions, were analyzed with reference analyses (Soxhlet, gas chromatography), and scanned by NIRS as intact seeds and seed meal. Calibration equations were developed and tested through cross validation. The coefficient of determination of the calibration (R ²) for intact seeds ranged from 0.91(oil content), 0.90 (seed hull fraction), 0.84 (empty seeds), 0.73 (linoleic acid) to 0.68 (oleic acid). The coefficient of determination of the cross validation was higher for seed meal than for intact seeds except for the parameter seed hull fraction. The results show that NIRS calibrations are applicable in safflower breeding programs for a fast screening.