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Bioproduction of mushroom mycelium of Agaricus bisporus by commercial submerged fermentation for the production of meat analogue

Kim, Kyoungju, Choi, Byungsun, Lee, Inhee, Lee, Hyeyoung, Kwon, Soonhyang, Oh, Kyoungyoung, Kim, Augustine Yonghwi
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2011 v.91 no.9 pp. 1561-1568
Agaricus bisporus, chewiness, electrons, ground beef, hardness, mastication, meat analogs, meat production, mushrooms, mycelium, patties, pellets, sensation, soy protein, submerged fermentation, sugarcane, texture, umami, yeast extract
BACKGROUND As worldwide interest in healthy and delicious meat analogues increases, the texture of these products has become an important indicator of quality. Mycoprotein as fungal mycelium could provide a distinctive chewing sensation; however, the unfavorable consumer perception of fungal mycelium demands the production of meat analogues with true mushroom mycelium. RESULTS: The industrial and economical bioprocess was developed using an inexpensive medium (30 g L⁻¹ sugar cane extract (SCE), 10 g L⁻¹ NaNO₃ and 5 g L⁻¹ yeast extract) and A. bisporus Suksung. The SCE was maintained at around 10 g L⁻¹ to minimize osmotic shock. The maximum mycelium production of 15.0 g L⁻¹ (dry weight) was reached within 4 days. Scanning electron microscopic analysis showed fibrous and directional structure rather than a more typical pellet structure. Meat analogues with mushroom mycelium had better textural properties, being higher in hardness, springiness, and chewiness and with preferable umami characteristics compared to meat analogues utilizing soy protein. The overall acceptance of meat analogues prepared with mycelium and soy protein, and a ground beef patty, were 5, 2 and 10, respectively. CONCLUSION: The development of an industrial bioprocess for A. bisporus mycelium allowed the production of a highly acceptable meat analogue having not only superior textural properties but also umami characteristics when compared to that of soy protein.