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Aluminum inhibits phosphatidic acid formation by blocking the phospholipase C pathway

Ramos-Díaz, Ana, Brito-Argáez, Ligia, Munnik, Teun, Hernández-Sotomayor, S. M. Teresa
Planta 2007 v.225 no.2 pp. 393-401
Coffea arabica, acids, aluminum, cell suspension culture, diacylglycerol kinase, orthophosphates, phospholipase C, phospholipase D, phospholipids, production economics, toxicity
Aluminum (Al³⁺) has been recognized as a main toxic factor in crop production in acid lands. Phosphatidic acid (PA) is emerging as an important lipid signaling molecule and has been implicated in various stress-signaling pathways in plants. In this paper, we focus on how PA generation is affected by Al³⁺ using Coffea arabica suspension cells. We pre-labeled cells with [³²P]orthophosphate (³²Pi) and assayed for ³²P-PA formation in response to Al³⁺. Treating cells for 15 min with either AlCl₃ or Al(NO₃)₃ inhibited the formation of PA. In order to test how Al³⁺ affected PA signaling, we used the peptide mastoparan-7 (mas-7), which is known as a very potent stimulator of PA formation. The Al³⁺ inhibited mas-7 induction of PA response, both before and after Al³⁺ incubation. The PA involved in signaling is generated by two distinct phospholipid signaling pathways, via phospholipase D (PLD; EC: or via Phospholipase C (PLC; EC:, and diacylglycerol kinase (DGK; EC By labeling with ³²Pi for short periods of time, we found that PA formation was inhibited almost 30% when the cells were incubated with AlCl₃ suggesting the involvement of the PLC/DGK pathway. Incubation of cells with PLC inhibitor, U73122, affected PA formation, like AlCl₃ did. PLD in vivo activation by mas-7 was reduced by Al³⁺. These results suggest that PA formation was prevented through the inhibition of the PLC activity, and it provides the first evidence for the role of Al toxicity on PA production.