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Ovicidal, repellent, adulticidal and field evaluations of plant extract against dengue, malaria and filarial vectors

Kovendan, Kalimuthu, Murugan, Kadarkarai, Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy, Thiyagarajan, Perumal, John William, Samuel
Parasitology research 2013 v.112 no.3 pp. 1205-1219
Acalypha, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, acetates, acetone, arboviruses, benzene, botanical insecticides, breeding sites, dengue, eggs, fever, filariasis, hexane, humans, hypersensitivity, insect vectors, larvae, leaf extracts, leaves, malaria, methanol, morbidity, mortality, mosquito bites, mosquito control, people, repellents, surface water, toxicity, India
Mosquitoes are insect vectors responsible for the transmission of parasitic and viral infections to millions of people worldwide, with substantial morbidity and mortality. Infections transmitted by mosquitoes include malaria, yellow fever, chikungunya, filariasis and other arboviruses. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The adulticidal activities of crude hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol leaf extracts of Acalypha alnifolia were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract were observed. The LC₅₀ values of A. alnifolia leaf extracts against adulticidal activity of (hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol) A. aegypti, A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus were the following: A. aegypti values were 371.87, 342.97, 320.17, 300.86 and 279.75 ppm; A. stephensi values were 358.35, 336.64, 306.10, 293.01 and 274.76 ppm; C. quinquefasciatus values were 383.59, 354.13, 327.74, 314.33 and 291.71 ppm. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of A. alnifolia plant at three different concentrations of 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 mg/cm² were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, this plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100 % with methanol extract of A. alnifolia was exerted at 125 and 300 ppm. The larval density was decreased after the treatment of plant extracts at the breeding sites (water bodies system) of vector mosquitoes, and hence, these plant extracts are suitable alternatives of synthetic insecticides for mosquito vector management.These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This study provides first report on the mosquito ovicidal, repellent and adulticidal activities of these plant extracts against mosquito vector species from India.