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Greenhouse gas emission profiles of European livestock sectors
- Lesschen, J.P., van den Berg, M., Westhoek, H.J., Witzke, H.P., Oenema, O.
- Animal feed science and technology 2011 v.166-167 pp. 16-28
- European Union, Food and Agriculture Organization, agricultural land, ammonia, animal manure management, beef, carbon dioxide, crop yield, deforestation, ecological footprint, egg production, eggs, eutrophication, excretion, farms, fermentation, fertilizers, fuels, greenhouse gas emissions, greenhouse gases, liming, livestock feeds, milk, models, nitrous oxide, organic production, organic soils, pork, poultry, production technology, statistics, Europe
- There are increasing concerns about the ecological footprint of global animal production. Expanding livestock sectors worldwide contribute to expansion of agricultural land and associated deforestation, emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), eutrophication of surface waters and nutrient imbalances. Farm based studies indicate that there are large differences among farms in animal productivity and environmental performance. Here, we report on regional variations in dairy, beef, pork, poultry and egg production, and related GHG emissions in the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU-27), based on 2003–2005 data. Analyses were made with the MITERRA-Europe model which calculates annual nutrient flows and GHG emissions from agriculture in the EU-27. Main input data were derived from CAPRI (i.e., crop areas, livestock distribution, feed inputs), GAINS (i.e., animal numbers, excretion factors, NH₃ emission factors), FAO statistics (i.e., crop yields, fertilizer consumption, animal production) and IPCC (i.e., CH₄, N₂O, CO₂ emission factors). Sources of GHG emissions included were enteric fermentation, manure management, direct and indirect N₂O soil emissions, cultivation of organic soils, liming, fossil fuel use and fertilizer production. The dairy sector had the highest GHG emission in the EU-27, with annual emission of 195TgCO₂-eq, followed by the beef sector with 192TgCO₂-eq. Enteric fermentation was the main source of GHG emissions in the European livestock sector (36%) followed by N₂O soil emissions (28%). On a per kg product basis, beef had by far the highest GHG emission with 22.6kgCO₂-eq/kg, milk had an emission of 1.3kgCO₂-eq/kg, pork 3.5kgCO₂-eq/kg, poultry 1.6kgCO₂-eq/kg, and eggs 1.7kgCO₂-eq/kg. However large variations in GHG emissions per unit product exist among EU countries, which are due to differences in animal production systems, feed types and nutrient use efficiencies. There are, however, substantial uncertainties in the base data and applied methodology such as assumptions surrounding allocation of feeds to livestock species. Our results provide insight into differences in GHG sources and emissions among animal production sectors for the various regions of Europe. This article is part of the special issue entitled: Greenhouse Gases in Animal Agriculture – Finding a Balance between Food and Emissions, Guest Edited by T.A. McAllister, Section Guest Editors; K.A. Beauchemin, X. Hao, S. McGinn and Editor for Animal Feed Science and Technology, P.H. Robinson.