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Effects of landscape and demographic history on genetic variation in Picea glehnii at the regional scale

Goto, Susumu, Tsuda, Yoshiaki, Koike, Yukihiro, Lian, Chunlan, Ide, Yuji
Ecological research 2009 v.24 no.6 pp. 1267-1277
Picea glehnii, afforestation, biogeography, climate change, flowering, genetic variation, landscapes, microsatellite repeats, palynology, phenology, seeds, swamps, Japan
To evaluate the effects of landscape and demographic history on genetic variation in Picea glehnii at a regional scale we have investigated the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of P. glehnii populations in the Furano region, central Hokkaido, Japan, using seven simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We found significant correlations between elevation and genetic diversity parameters. The value of A [₄₆] increased and the value of F IS decreased with increasing elevation, while F IS values were not significantly different from 0 in any of the populations. Significant recent bottlenecks were detected for isolated populations at low-elevation sites and for relatively large populations at moderate- and high-elevation sites. Evolutionary events pre-dating the Holocene should be taken into consideration, as elevational gradients should be with respect to locally adapted traits such as flowering phenology, However, the palynological data from the Holocene in this region suggest that the distribution pattern of genetic diversity of P. glehnii detected here may have been influenced by past demographic history related to the elevation shifts in this species' distribution associated with climate change during this period. Population differentiation was low, with F ST and G′ST values of 0.022 and 0.065, respectively. However, genetic boundaries were detected around one swamp population (C13). Therefore, significant isolation by distance (IBD) was not detected when all populations were considered, but there was significant IBD when the C13 population was excluded. Information on genetic diversity and genetic differentiation at the regional scale may be useful for selecting seed sources for afforestation programs for P. glehnii.