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Grafting of Gallic Acid onto Chitosan Enhances Antioxidant Activities and Alters Rheological Properties of the Copolymer

Xia, Minhao, Hu, Bing, Wang, Yan, Zeng, Xiaoxiong
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2014 v.62 no.37 pp. 9128-9136
antioxidant activity, aqueous solutions, chitosan, composite polymers, food industry, free radicals, gallic acid, lipid peroxidation, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, viscosity
A new, simple, and effective method to graft gallic acid (GA) onto chitosan (CS) in aqueous solution in the presence of carbodiimide and hydroxybenzotriazole was developed. The grafting amount of GA reached as much as 209.9 mg/g of copolymer, which appears as the highest one among the reported literature, and the grafting degree of GA to CS was adjustable with modulation of the mass ratio of GA to CS. The covalent insertion of GA onto the polymeric backbones was confirmed by UV–vis and 1H NMR analyses. Grafting endowed the resulting copolymer GA-grafted-CS (GA-g-CS) with both the advantages of CS and GA. The antioxidant capacity of GA-g-CS was much higher than that of the plain CS examined by assays of DPPH, superoxide, and ABTS radicals scavenging activities, reducing power, chelating power, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, ferric reducing antioxidant potential, and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. Particularly, GA-g-CS showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than GA in β-carotene-linoleic acid assay. Furthermore, the viscosity of GA-g-CS was significantly higher than that of CS. The present study developed a novel approach to synthesize GA-g-CS that could be a potential biomaterial in food industries.