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The herbal extract HMC05 inhibits neointima formation in balloon-injured rat carotid arteries: Possible therapeutic implications of HMC05

Lee, Jo Woon Yi, Lee, Bok-Soo, Lee, Ji Yeun, Ku, Hyo Jung, Jeon, So-Ra, Kim, Joo Yun, Ban, Ji Min, Sung, Sang Hyun, Shin, Heung Mook, Park, Jeong Euy
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2011 v.133 no.1 pp. 168-176
Western blotting, alkanes, anti-inflammatory activity, carotid arteries, cell proliferation, drugs, dyes, humans, hyperplasia, immunohistochemistry, macrophages, medicinal plants, mice, mitogen-activated protein kinase, models, monocytes, myocytes, phosphorylation, rats, smooth muscle, surgery, tube feeding
AIM OF THE STUDY: In a previous study, HMC05, a water extract from eight medicinal herbs was demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory effects in murine macrophages and anti-atherosclerotic effects in apoE⁻/⁻ mice. HSP27 expression was shown to be decreased in advanced atherosclerotic plaques of human carotid arteries. In the present study, the role of HMC05 in the prevention of restenosis and the possible mechanisms involved in the decrease of neointima formation were investigated using in vivo balloon injury rat model and in vitro biochemical assays. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rat carotid artery balloon injury restenosis model was used. Different doses of HMC05 were administered to the rats by tube feeding, starting from four days before surgery and continuing twice per week for two weeks after carotid injury. Injured carotid arteries isolated from rats were embedded in paraffin block and tissue sections were stained with H&E to assess neointima formation. Mechanism by HMC05 that are involved in smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration was assessed by western blot assay, immunohistochemistry and confocal analysis. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the medial area between the control and HMC05-treated groups. However, neointima formation was significantly inhibited in the HMC05-treated group, resulting in 47-fold lower intima to media ratios in rats treated with 25mg/kg/day HMC05 as compared to the control. Surprisingly, monocytes infiltration in the neointima area was almost completely blocked by HMC05 administration. When rat vascular SMCs were treated with HMC05, the proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells was dramatically inhibited in a dye uptake assay and in a scratch model in a culture dish, respectively. HMC05 dose-dependently inhibited PDGF-mediated MAPK and AKT activation. However, HMC05 did not affect PDGF-mediated HSP27 phosphorylation but it induced HSP27 overexpression and phosphorylation. In addition, medial SMCs in the arterial wall of rats treated with HMC05 showed a significant increase in HSP27 expression compared with that of the control rats. CONCLUSIONS: HMC05, a strong anti-inflammatory reagent, might use HSP27 as an effector molecule in SMCs to reduce neointimal hyperplasia by inhibiting PDGF-mediated MAPK and AKT activation. HMC05 could be a useful drug candidate for the prevention of restenosis after balloon injury of the arteries.