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Biodegradation of C.I. Acid Red 1 by indigenous bacteria Stenotrophomonas sp. BHUSSp X2 isolated from dye contaminated soil

Kumari, Lata, Tiwary, Dhanesh, Mishra, Pradeep Kumar
Environmental science and pollution research international 2016 v.23 no.5 pp. 4054-4062
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Stenotrophomonas, azo dyes, bacteria, biodegradation, decolorization, dyeing, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography, industry, nucleotide sequences, pH, phytotoxicity, polluted soils, ribosomal RNA, temperature, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, India
A significant proportion of xenobiotic recalcitrant azo dyes are being released in environment during carpet dyeing. The bacterial strain Stenotrophomonas sp. BHUSSp X2 was isolated from dye contaminated soil of carpet industry, Bhadohi, India. The isolated bacterial strain was identified morphologically, biochemically, and on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. The isolate decolorized 97 % of C.I. Acid Red 1 (Acid RED G) at the concentration of 200 mg/l within 6 h under optimum static conditions (temperature −35 °C, pH 8, and initial cell concentration 7 × 10⁷ cell/ml). Drastic reduction in dye degradation rate was observed beyond initial dye concentration from 500 mg/l (90 %), and it reaches to 25 % at 1000 mg/l under same set of conditions. The analysis related to decolorization and degradation was done using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, HPLC, and FTIR, whereas the GC-MS technique was utilized for the identification of degradation products. Phytotoxicity analysis revealed that degradation products are less toxic as compared to the original dye.