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Active capping technology: a new environmental remediation of contaminated sediment

Zhang, Chang, Zhu, Meng-ying, Zeng, Guang-ming, Yu, Zhi-gang, Cui, Fang, Yang, Zhong-zhu, Shen, Liu-qing
Environmental science and pollution research international 2016 v.23 no.5 pp. 4370-4386
activated carbon, adsorption, apatite, cost effectiveness, ecosystems, human health, natural resources, remediation, risk, sediment contamination, zeolites
The management and treatment of contaminated sediment is a worldwide problem and poses major technical and economic challenges. Nowadays, various attempts have been committed to investigating a cost-effective way in contaminated sediment restoration. Among the remediation options, in situ capping turns out to be a less expensive, less disruptive, and more durable approach. However, by using the low adsorption capacity materials, traditional caps do not always fulfill the reduction of risks that can be destructive for human health, ecosystem, and even natural resources. Active caps, therefore, are designed to employ active materials (activated carbon, apatite, zeolite, organoclay, etc.) to strengthen their adsorption and degradation capacity. The active capping technology promises to be a permanent and cost-efficient solution to contaminated sediments. This paper provides a review on the types of active materials and the ways of these active materials employed in recent active capping studies. Cap design considerations including site-specific conditions, diffusion/advection, erosive forces, and active material selection that should be noticed in an eligible remediation project are also presented.