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Differential effects of macronutrient content in 2 energy-restricted diets on cardiovascular risk factors and adipose tissue cell size in moderately obese individuals: a randomized controlled trial

Rizkalla, Salwa W, Prifti, Edi, Cotillard, Aurélie, Pelloux, Veronique, Rouault, Christine, Allouche, Reginald, Laromiguière, Muriel, Kong, LingChun, Darakhshan, Froogh, Massiera, Florence, Clement, Karine
The American journal of clinical nutrition 2012 v.95 no.1 pp. 49-63
C-reactive protein, adipocytes, adipose tissue, angiogenesis, apoptosis, blood glucose, body fat, cardioprotective effect, dieting, genes, glycemic index, insulin resistance, lipogenesis, low calorie diet, nutrient content, nutrition risk assessment, obesity, plasminogen activator, randomized clinical trials, soluble fiber, vascular endothelial growth factors, weight control programs, weight loss
BACKGROUND: The most effective and safe dietary approach for weight loss and its impact on the metabolic functions and morphology of adipose tissue remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether an energy-restricted high-protein diet with a low glycemic index and soluble fiber (LC-P-LGI) would be more effective than a low-calorie conventional diet (LC-CONV) on weight loss and related metabolic risk factors. We further determined factors that may influence adipocyte size during energy restriction. DESIGN: Thirteen obese participants were randomly assigned in a crossover design to 2 periods of a 4-wk hypocaloric diet as either LC-P-LGI or LC-CONV, separated by 8-wk washout intervals. RESULTS: In comparison with the LC-CONV diet, the main effect of the LC-P-LGI diet was a greater decrease in adipocyte diameter (P = 0.048), plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor protein-1 (P = 0.019), vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.032), and interferon-γ inducible protein 10 (P = 0.010). Whereas fasting plasma glucose and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein decreased only after the LC-P-LGI diet, with no differences between diets, fasting plasma insulin and insulin resistance were lower after the LC-CONV diet. The diet results did not differ for body composition and lipid variables. Kinetic modifications in adipocyte diameter were associated with metabolic variables and genes implicated in adipocyte proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with the LC-CONV diet, the LC-P-LGI diet was associated with improvement in some cardiometabolic risk factors and greater reduction in adipocyte size. Profiles of genes involved in inhibiting adipogenesis and angiogenesis, but increasing apoptosis, were correlated with decreased adipocyte size. This study provides insight into the adipose tissue–remodeling changes that induce regulation of adipocyte size during dietary weight loss. This trial was registered at as NCT01312740.