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Intrapersonal, social-cognitive and physical environmental variables related to context-specific sitting time in adults: a one-year follow-up study

Busschaert, Cedric, De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse, Van Cauwenberg, Jelle, Cardon, Greet, De Cocker, Katrien
The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 2016 v.13 no.1 pp. 28
adults, computers, cross-sectional studies, environmental factors, linear models, longitudinal studies, questionnaires, regression analysis, self-efficacy
BACKGROUND: Investigating associations between socio-ecological variables and context-specific sitting time in adults can support the development of future interventions. The purpose of the present study was to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships of intrapersonal, social-cognitive and physical environmental variables with context-specific sitting time (i.e. TV-viewing, computer use, motorized transport, and occupational sitting) in adults. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, data were retrieved from a random sample of Flemish (Belgian) adults. At baseline, 301 adults (age, 43.3 ± 10.6 years) completed a questionnaire on context-specific sitting time and its potential predictors. After a 1-year follow-up period, complete data of 188 adults was available (age, 46.0 ± 10.4 years). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed for both the cross-sectional data at baseline (correlates) and the longitudinal data (predictors). RESULTS: The cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses revealed different relationships between sitting during TV viewing, computer use, motorized transport and occupation. Generally, change in cross-sectional correlates did not cause change in context-specific sitting time in the longitudinal analyses. Social-cognitive correlates/predictors were most frequently identified, followed by intrapersonal correlates/predictors. Attitude, self-efficacy, (social) norm and modelling were found to be the most consistently related social-cognitive correlates/predictors to context-specific sitting time. Limited evidence was available for relationships between physical environmental variables and context-specific sitting time. CONCLUSIONS: The cross-sectional correlates differed from the longitudinal predictors of context-specific sitting time, highlighting the need for longitudinal research. The present study also underlined the need for family interventions to minimize context-specific sitting time, as both intrapersonal and social-cognitive variables were associated with context-specific sitting time.