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Elimination of viruses from domestic wastewater: requirements and technologies

Zhang, Chong-Miao, Xu, Li-Mei, Xu, Peng-Cheng, Wang, Xiaochang C.
World journal of microbiology & biotechnology 2016 v.32 no.4 pp. 69
bacteria, coagulation, disinfection, filtration, pathogens, surface water, ultraviolet radiation, virus transmission, viruses, wastewater, wastewater treatment, waterborne diseases
Domestic wastewater contains various pathogens, which, if not sufficiently eliminated, may enter the receiving water bodies and cause water-transmitted diseases. Among the waterborne pathogens, viruses may occur, survive and/or decay much differently from bacteria in water. In many cases, the diseases caused by viruses are more severe. Therefore, research efforts are mainly directed at the behavior of viruses in water environments, as well as the elimination of viruses from wastewater. In this paper, an overview of the occurrence of viruses in wastewater is presented, together with their categories, methods of detection and potential to cause waterborne diseases. As wastewater treatment plants are critical nodes for the influx and termination of virus transmission, the behavior of viruses at each stage of treatment is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the unit operations, which play crucial roles in virus removals, such as coagulation and membrane filtration, and that for virus inactivation, such as chemical disinfection and UV irradiation. Future needs for the development of new technologies for virus elimination, source control, and finding more suitable indicators of viral pathogens are also highlighted.