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Molecular Characterization of Acanthamoeba spp. Occurring in Water Bodies and Patients in Poland and Redefinition of Polish T16 Genotype

Adamska, Małgorzata
The journal of eukaryotic microbiology 2016 v.63 no.2 pp. 262-270
Acanthamoeba, genes, genotype, human diseases, nucleotide sequences, patients, people, phylogeny, ribosomal RNA, risk, surface water, Poland
Acanthamoeba genus is divided into 20 genotypes (T1–T20) on the basis of the gene encoding 18S rRNA sequence. Using of at least 2 kbp gene fragments is strongly recommended to identify new genotypes and 5% difference is commonly used as a criterion of new genotypes, however, this value is questionable. In this paper, Polish Acanthamoeba strains described earlier on the basis of ~850 bp Ami fragment of 18S rRNA gene as T4, T11 and a new T16 genotype, have been analyzed using near‐complete sequence of the gene. This analysis was needed because the Ami fragment does not reveal full variability within 18S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis based on Ami fragment is biased by artifacts in the construction of the tree, so the fragment should not be used for identification of new putative Acanthamoeba genotypes. The analysis confirmed that the Polish sequences represent T4 and T11 genotypes and that the strains described earlier as T16 genotype are in fact a new subgroup of the T20 genotype and that this genotype should be divided into two subgroups: T20a (two strains described by [J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 62 (2015) 69]) and T20b (11 Polish strains described in this study). The T20b subgroup was isolated from both clinical samples and water bodies used by people as bathing places and there is a risk of infection for humans during contact with water.