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Perinatal Administration of a Bitter Tastant Influences Gene Expression in Chicken Palate and Duodenum
- Cheled-Shoval, Shira L., Behrens, Maik, Meyerhof, Wolfgang, Niv, Masha Y., Uni, Zehava
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2014 v.62 no.52 pp. 12512-12520
- bitterness, chickens, chicks, duodenum, food choices, food intake, gene expression, genes, mammals, palate, quinine, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, signal transduction, taste, taste receptors, tongue
- Bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs) and downstream effectors are responsible for mediating bitterness perception and regulation of food choice in mammals. Using RT-PCR, we demonstrated the expression of three Tas2rs and taste signal transduction molecules, Î±-gustducin, PLCÎ²2, and TRPM5, in the palate, tongue, and gastrointestinal tract sections in chicken. The bitter tastant quinine activates all three chicken Tas2rs in vitro as shown using calcium-imaging assays of transfected cells. Administration of quinine postnatally or perinatally (both pre- and posthatch) to chickens increased the expression of Tas2r genes in the palate by 6.45-fold (ggTas2r1 postnatal treatment), 4.86-fold (ggTas2r1 perinatal treatment), and 4.48-fold (ggTas2r7 postnatal treatment) compared to the genesâ expression in the naÄ±Ìve group respectively, and affected taste related gene expression in the duodenum. Whereas no-choice intake of quinine solution was not significantly lower than that of water in naÄ±Ìve chicks, the treatment groups postnatal, prenatal, and perinatal showed significantly lower intake of quinine by 56.1, 47.7, and 50.2%, respectively, suggesting a possible trend toward sensitization. These results open new venues toward unraveling the formative stages shaping food intake and nutrition in chicken.