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Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Rosa taiwanensis Nakai in Mice

Tsai, Der-Shiang, Huang, Mei-Hsuen, Tsai, Jen-Chieh, Chang, Yuan-Shuang, Chiu, Yung-Jia, Lin, Yen-Chang, Wu, Lung-Yuan, Peng, Wen-Huang
Journal of medicinal food 2015 v.18 no.5 pp. 592-600
Rosa, active ingredients, analgesic effect, analgesics, anti-inflammatory activity, betulinic acid, edema, ethanol, formalin, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-disulfide reductase, high performance liquid chromatography, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, lambda-carrageenan, liver, malondialdehyde, mice, models, nitric oxide, oleanolic acid, prostaglandin synthase, superoxide dismutase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha
In this study, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of a 70% ethanol extract from Rosa taiwanensis Nakai (RTEtOH). The analgesic effect was determined using acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin test. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of RTEtOH was examined by measuring the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the paw edema tissue and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver tissue. The betulinic acid and oleanolic acid contents of RTEtOH were assayed by HPLC. The results showed that RTEtOH decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses (1.0 g/kg) and the late phase of the formalin-induced licking time (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg). In the anti-inflammatory models, RTEtOH (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) reduced the paw edema at 3, 4, and 5 h after λ-carrageenan administration. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be due to the decreased levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, as well as the inhibition of NO and MDA levels through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd. The contents of two active compounds, betulinic acid and oleanolic acid, were quantitatively determined. This study demonstrated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of RTEtOH and provided evidence to support its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases.