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Combined Treatment of Mulberry Leaf and Fruit Extract Ameliorates Obesity-Related Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice
- Lim, Hyun Hwa, Yang, Soo Jin, Kim, Yuri, Lee, Myoungsook, Lim, Yunsook
- Journal of medicinal food 2013 v.16 no.8 pp. 673-680
- C-reactive protein, adipocytes, animal disease models, body weight changes, diet, fruit extracts, heme oxygenase (biliverdin-producing), inducible nitric oxide synthase, inflammation, interleukin-1, leaf extracts, leaves, lipid peroxidation, mice, mulberries, obesity, oxidative stress, superoxide dismutase, triacylglycerols, tumor necrosis factor-alpha
- The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combined treatment of mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and mulberry fruit extract (MFE) was effective for improving obesity and obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress in high fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. After obesity was induced by HF diet for 9 weeks, the mice were divided into eight groups: (1) lean control, (2) HF diet-induced obese control, (3) 1:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L1:1), (4) 500 (M1:1), and (5) 1000 (H1:1) mg/kg per day, and (6) 2:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L2:1), (7) 500 (M2:1), and (8) 1000 (H2:1) mg/kg per day. All six combined treatments significantly lowered body weight gain, plasma triglycerides, and lipid peroxidation levels after the 12-week treatment period. Additionally, all combined treatments suppressed hepatic fat accumulation and reduced epididymal adipocyte size. These improvements were accompanied by decreases in protein levels of proinflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and phospho-nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor alpha) and oxidative stress markers (heme oxygenase-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase). M2:1 was the most effective ratio and dose for the improvements in obesity, inflammation, and oxidative stress. These results demonstrate that a combined MLE and MFE treatment ameliorated obesity and obesity-related metabolic stressors and suggest that it can be used as a means to prevent and/or treat obesity.