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Effects of Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of Chinese traditional food: roast duck

Zhou, Yiming, Xie, Fan, Zhou, Xiaoli, Wang, Yuqiang, Tang, Wen, Xiao, Ying
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2016 v.96 no.6 pp. 1915-1922
Maillard reaction, acrylamides, antioxidant activity, apoptosis, color, ducks, flavor, hydroxymethylfurfural, lactose, odor compounds, odors, risk, roasting, toxic substances, traditional foods
BACKGROUND: Roast duck is one kind of representative roast food whose flavor is mainly produced by the Maillard reaction. However, some potentially toxic compounds are generated in the thermal process and are a potential health risk. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of the Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of a Chinese traditional food: roast duck. RESULTS: Ducks with different roasting times (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) were analyzed. The 40 and 50 min roast ducks exhibited an acceptable degree of sensory attributes, but the 60 min roast duck showed the most abundant aroma compounds. Antioxidant activities were observed to increase with roasting, and the 60 min roast duck showed the highest antioxidant activities (1,1‐diphenylpicryhydrazyl, 39.3 µmol Trolox g⁻¹ sample). The highest content of acrylamide (0.21 µg g⁻¹) and 5‐hydroxymethylfurfural (0.089 µg g⁻¹) were detected in the 50 and 60 min roast duck extract, respectively. Furthermore, water extract from 60 min roast ducks manifested a higher lactose dehydrogenase release ratio (51.9%) and greatly increased cell apoptosis. CONCLUSION: The drastic Maillard reaction in duck induced by long roasting time could be advantageous for color, aroma and antioxidant activities in roast ducks, but might be not beneficial to health. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry