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Cadmium accumulation in Panax notoginseng: levels, affecting factors and the non-carcinogenic health risk
- Zhu, Meilin, Jiang, Yang, Cui, Bin, Jiang, Yanxue, Cao, Hongbin, Zhang, Wensheng
- Environmental geochemistry and health 2016 v.38 no.2 pp. 423-435
- Monte Carlo method, Panax notoginseng, World Health Organization, acceptable daily intake, cadmium, diet, females, herbal medicines, males, men, pH, regression analysis, risk, roots, women, zinc, China
- Cadmium (Cd) contamination has been reported to be a problem for the safe usage of Panax notoginseng (Sanchi); thus, it is necessary to elucidate the Cd accumulation in Sanchi and to assess its associated health risk. Samples were collected from major producing areas in Yunnan, China. The average concentration of Cd in Sanchi was 0.43 mg/kg, which exceeds the standard level for herbal medicine in China (0.3 mg/kg). A stepwise regression analysis showed that zinc and the pH were the related factors that most significantly impacted Cd in Sanchi roots. The hazard quotient values were estimated as 0.0010 (men) and 0.0012 (women) for consumers taking preparations and were 0.011 (men) and 0.013 (women) for consumers taking health products, implying that there is no non-carcinogenic hazard associated with Sanchi consumption. However, a Monte Carlo simulation showed that approximately 0.80 % of male and 1.02 % of female consumers via drug consumption and 36.28 % of male and 41.87 % of female consumers via health product consumption had an exposure exceeding the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of Cd from drugs (1 % of the total oral ADI as suggested by the World Health Organization). These people should control their oral Cd intake from both Sanchi consumption and diet as a whole.