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Developmental Profile of Anthocyanin, Flavonol, and Proanthocyanidin Type, Content, and Localization in Saskatoon Fruits (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.)

Jin, Alena L., Ozga, Jocelyn A., Kennedy, James A., Koerner-Smith, Jayma L., Botar, Gabor, Reinecke, Dennis M.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2015 v.63 no.5 pp. 1601-1614
Amelanchier alnifolia, anthocyanins, cultivars, flavonols, fruit maturity, fruiting, fruits, proanthocyanidins, ripening, small fruits, testa, tissues
Saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) are small fruits that contain substantial quantities of flavonoids. To further characterize and understand the role of these flavonoids during fruit development, anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins were identified, quantified, and localized over development in cultivars that produce blue-purple or white fruit at maturity. Anthocyanin content was low in young fruit and then dramatically increased as the fruit transitioned into ripening only in the pigmented-fruit (blue-purple) cultivars. Proanthocyanidins with both A-type and B-type linkages were detected in fruit, with (−)-epicatechin as the most abundant proanthocyanidin subunit. Flavonol and proanthocyanidin content was high in, and localized throughout, the tissues of young fruit and in the developing seed coats, with levels decreasing as the fruit expanded. Our data show that flavonoid type, content, and tissue localization vary throughout development in saskatoon fruit. These data can be used to target specific fruit developmental stages and flavonoid classes for optimization of health-beneficial flavonoid content.