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Genetic diversity and population structure of Vigna exilis and Vigna grandiflora (Phaseoleae, Fabaceae) from Thailand based on microsatellite variation

Kaewwongwal, Anochar, Jetsadu, Arunee, Somta, Prakit, Chankaew, Sompong, Srinives, Peerasak
Botany 2013 v.91 no.10 pp. 653-661
Vigna, alleles, genetic variation, heterozygosity, in situ conservation, microsatellite repeats, outcrossing, population structure, variance, Thailand
The objective of this research was to determine the genetic diversity and population structure of natural populations of two rare wild species of Asian Vigna (Phaseoleae, Fabaceae), Vigna exilis Tateishi & Maxted and Vigna grandiflora (Prain) Tateishi & Maxted, from Thailand. Employing 21 simple sequence repeat markers, 107 and 85 individuals from seven and five natural populations of V. exilis and V. grandiflora, respectively, were analyzed. In total, the markers detected 196 alleles for V. exilis and 219 alleles for V. grandiflora. Vigna exilis populations showed lower average values in number of alleles, allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, gene diversity, and outcrossing rate than V. grandiflora populations, namely 58.00% versus 114.60%, 51.96% versus 74.80%, 0.02% versus 0.18%, 0.40% versus 0.66%, and 3.24% versus 17.41%, respectively. Pairwise FST among populations demonstrated that V. exilis was much more differentiated than V. grandiflora. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that 41.83% and 15.06% of total variation resided among the populations of V. exilis and V. grandiflora, respectively. Seven and two genetic clusters were detected for V. grandiflora and V. exilis by STRUCTURE analysis. Our findings suggest that different strategies are required for in situ conservation of the two species. All V. exilis populations, or as many as possible, should be conserved to protect genetic resources of this species, while a few V. grandiflora populations can capture the majority of its genetic variation.