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Effect of particle size and microbial phytase on phytate degradation in incubated maize and soybean meal

Ton Nu, M. A., Blaabjerg, K., Poulsen, H. D.
Animal 2014 v.8 no.4 pp. 534-541
corn, feeds, grinding, models, pH, particle size, particle size distribution, phosphorus, phytases, phytic acid, soybean meal
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of screen size (1, 2 and 3 mm) and microbial phytase (0 and 1000 FTU/kg as-fed) on phytate degradation in maize (100% maize), soybean meal (100% SBM) and maize–SBM (75% maize and 25% SBM) incubated in water for 0, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h at 38°C. Samples were analysed for pH, dry matter and phytate phosphorus (P). Particle size distribution (PSD) and average particle size (APS) of samples were measured by the Laser Diffraction and Bygholm method. PSD differed between the two methods, whereas APS was similar. Decreasing screen size from 3 to 1 mm reduced APS by 48% in maize, 30% in SBM and 26% in maize–SBM. No interaction between screen size and microbial phytase on phytate degradation was observed, but the interaction between microbial phytase and incubation time was significant (P<0.001). This was because microbial phytase reduced phytate P by 88% in maize, 84% in maize–SBM and 75% in SBM after 2 h of incubation (P<0.05), whereas the reduction of phytate P was limited (<50%) in the feeds, even after 24 h when no microbial phytase was added. The exponential decay model was fitted to the feeds with microbial phytase to analyse the effect of screen size and feed on microbial phytase efficacy on phytate degradation. The interaction between screen size and feed affected the relative phytate degradation rate (R d) of microbial phytase as well as the time to decrease 50% of the phytate P (t $\scale70%{\vskip3pt{{\scale60%{\vskip-7pt1}{\hskip-3pt\vskip-5.6pt\rot160/}{\scale60%{\hskip-4pt\vskip0pt2}$) (P<0.001). Thus, changing from 3 to 1 mm screen size increased R d by 22 and 10%/h and shortened t $\scale70%{\vskip3pt{{\scale60%{\vskip-7pt1}{\hskip-3pt\vskip-5.6pt\rot160/}{\scale60%{\hskip-4pt\vskip0pt2}$ by 0.4 and 0.2 h in maize and maize–SBM, respectively (P<0.05), but not in SBM. Moreover, the screen size effect was more pronounced in maize and maize–SBM compared with SBM as a higher phytate degradation rate constant (K d) and R d, and a shorter t $\scale70%{\vskip3pt{{\scale60%{\vskip-7pt1}{\hskip-3pt\vskip-5.6pt\rot160/}{\scale60%{\hskip-4pt\vskip0pt2}$ was observed in maize compared with SBM in all screen sizes (P<0.05). However, a higher amount of degraded phytate was achieved in SBM than in maize because of the higher initial phytate P content in SBM. In conclusion, reducing screen size from 3 to 1 mm increased K d and R d and decreased t $\scale70%{\vskip3pt{{\scale60%{\vskip-7pt1}{\hskip-3pt\vskip-5.6pt\rot160/}{\scale60%{\hskip-4pt\vskip0pt2}$ in maize and maize–SBM with microbial phytase. The positive effect of grinding on improving microbial phytase efficacy, which was expressed as K d, R d and t $\scale70%{\vskip3pt{{\scale60%{\vskip-7pt1}{\hskip-3pt\vskip-5.6pt\rot160/}{\scale60%{\hskip-4pt\vskip0pt2}$ , was greater in maize than in SBM.