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Carotenoids of Aleurone, Germ, and Endosperm Fractions of Barley, Corn and Wheat Differentially Inhibit Oxidative Stress

Masisi, Kabo, Diehl-Jones, William L., Gordon, Joseph, Chapman, Donald, Moghadasian, Mohammed H., Beta, Trust
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2015 v.63 no.10 pp. 2715-2724
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, antioxidants, barley, corn, endosperm, genes, high performance liquid chromatography, lutein, microarray technology, oxidation, oxidative stress, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, wheat, zeaxanthin
The antioxidant potential of carotenoids from aleurone, germ, and endosperm fractions of barley, corn, and wheat has been evaluated. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoids (nd-15139 μg/kg) in extracts of cereal grain fractions. The antioxidant properties using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays revealed significantly higher (P < 0.001) antioxidant activity in the germ than in the aleurone and endosperm fractions. Using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 2,2′azobis (2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced cell loss was effectively reduced by preincubating Caco-2, HT-29, and FHs 74 Int cells with carotenoid extracts. Moreover, carotenoid extracts reduced (P < 0.001) AAPH-induced intracellular oxidation in the cell lines, suggesting antioxidant activity. Of the 84 antioxidant pathway genes included in microarray array analysis (HT-29 cells), the expressions of 28 genes were enhanced (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that carotenoids of germ, aleurone, and endosperm fractions improved antioxidant capacity and thus have the potential to mitigate oxidative stress.