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Woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann ecology and its relationship with climatic variables and natural enemies in Mediterranean areas

Lordan, Jaume, Alegre, Simó, Gatius, Ferran, Sarasúa, M. José, Alins, Georgina
Bulletin of entomological research 2015 v.105 no.1 pp. 60-69
Aphelinus mali, Eriosoma lanigerum, Forficula auricularia, autumn, canopy, climatic factors, control methods, migratory behavior, models, natural enemies, overwintering, parasitoids, population dynamics, roots, spring, summer, temperature, Mediterranean region
A multilateral approach that includes both biotic and climatic data was developed to detect the main variables that affect the ecology and population dynamics of woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann). Crawlers migrated up and down the trunk mainly from spring to autumn and horizontal migration through the canopy was observed from May to August. Winter temperatures did not kill the canopy colonies, and both canopy and root colonies are the source of reinfestations in Mediterranean areas. Thus, control measures should simultaneously address roots and canopy. European earwigs Forficula auricularia (Linnaeus) were found to reduce the survival of overwintering canopy colonies up to June, and this can allow their later control by the parasitoid Aphelinus mali (Haldeman) from summer to fall. Preliminary models to predict canopy infestations were developed.