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Effects of a rapeseed oil-enriched hypoenergetic diet with a high content of α-linolenic acid on body weight and cardiovascular risk profile in patients with the metabolic syndrome
- Baxheinrich, Andrea, Stratmann, Bernd, Lee-Barkey, Young Hee, Tschoepe, Diethelm, Wahrburg, Ursel
- The British journal of nutrition 2012 v.108 no.4 pp. 682-691
- alpha-linolenic acid, blood serum, body weight, diastolic blood pressure, energy density, insulin, low calorie diet, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, metabolic syndrome, nutritional intervention, olive oil, omega-3 fatty acids, patients, rapeseed, rapeseed oil, risk profile, systolic blood pressure, weight loss
- In therapy of the metabolic syndrome, the optimal dietary approach with regard to its macronutrient composition and metabolically favourable food components, such as the plant-derived n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), is still a matter of debate. We investigated the effects of a hypoenergetic diet with low energy density (ED) enriched in rapeseed oil, resulting in high MUFA content and an ALA intake of 3·5 g/d on body weight and cardiovascular risk profile in eighty-one patients with the metabolic syndrome in comparison with an olive oil diet rich in MUFA, but with a low ALA content. After a 6-month dietary intervention, body weight was significantly reduced in the rapeseed oil and olive oil groups (− 7·8 v. − 6·0 kg; P < 0·05). There were significant decreases in systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and insulin levels in both groups (P < 0·05). For all of these changes, no inter-group differences were observed. After the rapeseed oil diet, diastolic blood pressure declined more than after the olive oil diet (P < 0·05 for time × group interaction). Furthermore, concentrations of serum TAG were significantly reduced after the high ALA intake, but not in the low ALA group (P < 0·05 for time × group interaction). In conclusion, our dietary food pattern with a low ED and high intakes of MUFA and ALA may be a practical approach for long-term dietary treatment in patients with the metabolic syndrome, leading to weight reduction and an improvement in the overall cardiovascular risk profile.