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Effects of consumption of main and side dishes with white rice on postprandial glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 responses in healthy Japanese men

Kameyama, Noriko, Maruyama, Chizuko, Matsui, Sadako, Araki, Risa, Yamada, Yuichiro, Maruyama, Taro
The British journal of nutrition 2014 v.111 no.9 pp. 1632-1640
Japanese people, blood glucose, blood serum, foods, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose, insulin, lipid content, males, men, rice, secretin, test meals, vegetables, volunteers
The co-ingestion of protein, fat and fibre with carbohydrate reportedly affects postprandial glucose, insulin and incretin (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)) responses. However, the effects of combination dishes with carbohydrate-rich foods at typically eaten amounts remain unclear. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of consuming recommended amounts of side dishes with boiled white rice in the same meal on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin and incretin hormone responses. A total of nine healthy male volunteers consumed four different meals in a random order on separate days. The test meals were as follows: S, white rice; SM, addition of protein-rich main dishes to the S meal; SMF, addition of a fat-rich food item to the SM meal; SMFV, addition of vegetables to the SMF meal. Plasma glucose, GIP and GLP-1 and serum insulin concentrations were determined during a 3 h period after consumption of these meals. Postprandial glucose responses were lower after SMFV meal consumption than after consumption of the other meals. The incremental AUC for GIP (0–180 min) were largest after consumption of the SMF and SMFV meals, followed by that after SM meal consumption, and was smallest after S meal consumption (P< 0·05). Furthermore, we found GIP concentrations to be dose dependently increased by the fat content of meals of ordinary size, despite the amount of additional fat being small. In conclusion, the combination of recommended amounts of main and vegetable side dishes with boiled white rice is beneficial for lowering postprandial glucose concentrations, with an increased incretin response, when compared with white rice alone.