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Prevalence and characteristics of misreporting of energy intake in US children and adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2012

Murakami, Kentaro, Livingstone, M. Barbara E.
The British journal of nutrition 2016 v.115 no.2 pp. 294-304
Blacks, Dietary Reference Intakes, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, USDA, Whites, adolescents, children, diet recall, energy intake, equations, income, obesity, physical activity, poverty, regression analysis, risk, sedentary lifestyle, United States
Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2012, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of under- and over-reporting of energy intake (EI) among 14 044 US children and adolescents aged 2–19 years. For the assessment of EI, two 24-h dietary recalls were conducted with the use of the US Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Under-, plausible and over-reporters of EI were identified using two methods: based on the 95 % confidence limits (1) for agreement between the ratio of EI:BMR and a physical activity level for sedentary lifestyle (1·55) and (2) of the expected ratio of EI:estimated energy requirement (EER) of 1·0. BMR was calculated using Schofield’s equations. EER was calculated using equations from the US Dietary Reference Intakes, assuming ‘low active’ level of physical activity. The risk of being an under- or over-reporter compared with a plausible reporter was analysed using multiple logistic regression. Percentages of under-, plausible and over-reporters were 13·1, 81·5 and 5·4 %, respectively, based on EI:BMR and 18·8, 72·3 and 8·8 %, respectively, based on EI:EER. Under-reporting was associated with older age, non-Hispanic blacks (compared with non-Hispanic whites) and overweight and obesity (compared with normal weight). Over-reporting was associated with younger age, lower family poverty income ratio, normal weight and the first survey cycle. Similar findings were obtained when analysing only the first 24-h recall data from NHANES 1999–2012 (n 22 949). In conclusion, we found that EI misreporting remains prevalent and differential in US children and adolescents.