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The legacy of a crowded ocean: indicators, status, and trends of anthropogenic pressures in the California Current ecosystem
- ANDREWS, KELLY S., WILLIAMS, GREGORY D., SAMHOURI, JAMEAL F., MARSHALL, KRISTIN N., GERTSEVA, VLADLENA, LEVIN, PHILLIP S.
- Environmental conservation 2015 v.42 no.2 pp. 139-151
- factor analysis, human population, humans, marine ecosystems, marine resources, population size, seafoods, temporal variation, time series analysis, Pacific Ocean, United States
- As human population size and demand for seafood and other marine resources increase, understanding the influence of human activities in the ocean and on land becomes increasingly critical to the management and conservation of marine resources. In order to account for human influence on marine ecosystems while making management decisions, linkages between various anthropogenic pressures and ecosystem components need to be determined. Those linkages cannot be drawn until it is known how different pressures have been changing over time. This paper identifies indicators and develops time series for 22 anthropogenic pressures acting on the USA's portion of the California Current ecosystem. Time series suggest that seven pressures have decreased and two have increased over the short term, while five pressures were above and two pressures were below long-term means. Cumulative indices of anthropogenic pressures suggest a slight decrease in pressures in the 2000s compared to the preceding few decades. Dynamic factor analysis revealed four common trends that sufficiently explained the temporal variation found among all anthropogenic pressures. This reduced set of time series will be a useful tool to determine whether links exist between individual or multiple pressures and various ecosystem components.