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Influence of Cultivar and Harvest Year on the Volatile Profiles of Leaves and Roots of Carrots (Daucus carota spp. sativus Hoffm.)

Ulrich, Detlef, Nothnagel, Thomas, Schulz, Hartwig
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2015 v.63 no.13 pp. 3348-3356
Daucus carota, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, biosynthesis, bitter-tasting compounds, bornyl acetate, breeding, carrots, center of diversity, color, cultivars, gamma-terpinene, gas chromatography, genotype-environment interaction, humulene, leaves, limonene, metabolites, myrcene, roots, solid phase microextraction, statistical analysis, terpinolene, volatile compounds
The focus of the present work centers on the diversity of volatile patterns of carrots. In total 15 main volatiles were semiquantified in leaves and roots using isolation by headspace solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography with FID and MS detection. Significant differences in the main number of compounds were detected between the cultivars as well as the years. Genotype–environment interactions (G × E) are discussed. The most abundant metabolites, β-myrcene (leaves) and terpinolene (roots), differ in the sum of all interactions (cultivar × harvest year) by a factor of 22 and 62, respectively. A statistical test indicates significant metabolic differences between cultivars for nine volatiles in leaves and 10 in roots. In contrast to others the volatiles α-pinene, γ-terpinene, limonene, and myristicine in leaves as well as β-pinene, humulene, and bornyl acetate in roots are relatively stable over years. A correlation analysis shows no strict clustering regarding root color. While the biosynthesis in leaves and roots is independent between these two organs for nine of the 15 volatiles, a significant correlation of the myristicine content between leaves and roots was determined, which suggests the use of this compound as a bitter marker in carrot breeding.