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Genetic variation of the granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) genes in waxy and non-waxy accessions of Chenopodium berlandieri ssp. nuttalliae from Central Mexico

Cepeda-Cornejo, Verónica, Brown, Douglass C., Palomino, Guadalupe, de la Cruz, Eulogio, Fogarty, Melissa, Maughan, Peter J., Jellen, Eric N.
Plant genetic resources 2016 v.14 no.1 pp. 57-66
Chenopodium berlandieri, Chenopodium quinoa, amylose, breeding, genetic variation, genotype, landraces, molecular cloning, mutation, null alleles, polymerase chain reaction, quinoa grain, sequence analysis, starch synthase, valleys, vegetable crops, Andes region, Mexico
Huauzontle (Chenopodium berlandieri ssp. nuttalliae) is a locally important vegetable crop native to the highland valleys of Central Mexico and a potential source of genes for improving its Andean sister crop, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). A previous work involving two huauzontle lines identified one waxy genotype that lacked amylose due to mutations in granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), major amylose-synthesis genes with two constituent subgenomes, A and B. We conducted this study to determine the extent of waxy genotypes and cryptic GBSSI mutations in 11 huauzontle accessions or landrace populations extending from Puebla in the southeast to Jalisco in the northwest. This represents one of the first published studies of genetic variation in C. berlandieri ssp. nuttalliae. Accessions were phenotyped for opaque versus translucent seed morphology and their seed starches were stained with Lugol's Stain. In addition, complete or partial GBSSI genes from their A and B genomes were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified, cloned and sequenced. Seven accessions were either wholly or partially non-waxy while six were either entirely or partially waxy. All waxy accessions carried the same putatively null alleles, designated gbssIa-tp (A-genome) and gbssIb-del (B-genome). The identification of publicly available genotypes carrying gbssIa-tp and their potential use in breeding waxy grain quinoa is discussed.