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Dietary quality indices vary with sociodemographic variables and anthropometric status among Mexican adults: a cross-sectional study. Results from the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey

Ponce, Xochitl, Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia, Mundo-Rosas, Verónica, Shamah, Teresa, Barquera, Simón, de Cossio, Teresa González
Public health nutrition 2014 v.17 no.8 pp. 1717-1728
Dietary Guidelines, World Health Organization, adults, compliance, cross-sectional studies, females, food and nutrition programs, food intake, foods, males, medicine, national surveys, nutrients, nutrition surveys, nutritional adequacy, socioeconomic status, Mexico
To evaluate the dietary quality of Mexican adults’ diet, we constructed three dietary quality indices: a cardioprotective index (CPI), a micronutrient adequacy index (MAI) and a dietary diversity index (DDI). Data were derived from the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey, which is a national survey representative of the Mexican population with a stratified, multistage, probabilistic sample design. Dietary intake was assessed from an FFQ with 101 different foods and daily nutrient intakes were computed. The CPI evaluated compliance with seven WHO recommendations for the prevention of CVD, the MAI evaluated the intake of six micronutrients based on the estimated average requirements from the US Institute of Medicine and the DDI was constructed based on the consumption of thirty different food groups. Mexico. Mexican adults aged 19–59 years old. We evaluated the diet of 15 675 males and females. Adjusted means and adjusted proportions by age and sex were computed to predict adherence to dietary recommendations. Rural inhabitants, those living in the South and those from the lowest socio-economic status reported a significantly higher CPI (4·5 (se 0·08), 4·3 (se 0·08) and 4·2 (se 0·09), respectively; P < 0·05), but a significantly lower MAI and DDI, compared with urban inhabitants, those from the North and those of upper socio-economic status (P < 0·05). The constructed diet quality indices identify nutrients and foods whose recommended intakes are not adequately consumed by the population. Given the epidemiological and nutritional transition that Mexico is experiencing, the CPI is the most relevant index and its components should be considered in Mexican dietary guidelines as well as in any food and nutrition programmes developed.