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Comparison of genetic diversity structure analyses of SSR molecular marker data within apple (Malus × domestica) genetic resources

Patzak, Josef, Paprštein, František, Henychová, Alena, Sedlák, Jiří
Genome 2012 v.55 no.9 pp. 647-665
Bayesian theory, Malus domestica, alleles, apples, breeding, cluster analysis, cultivars, genetic variation, germplasm, landraces, loci, microsatellite repeats, provenance
The aim of this study was to compare traditional hierarchical clustering techniques and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) with the model-based Bayesian cluster analyses in relation to subpopulation differentiation based on breeding history and geographical origin of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivars and landraces. We presented the use of a set of 10 microsatellite (SSR) loci for genetic diversity structure analyses of 273 apple accessions from national genetic resources. These SSR loci yielded a total of 113 polymorphic SSR alleles, with 5–18 alleles per locus. SSR molecular data were successfully used in binary and allelic input format for all genetic diversity analyses, but allelic molecular data did not reveal reliable results with the NTSYS-pc and BAPS softwares. A traditional cluster analysis still provided an easy and effective way for determining genetic diversity structure in the apple germplasm collection. A model-based Bayesian analysis also provided the clustering results in accordance to traditional cluster analysis, but the analyses were distorted by the presence of a dominant group of apple genetic resources owing to the narrow origin of the apple genome. PCoA confirmed that there were no noticeable differences in genetic diversity structure of apple genetic resources during the breeding history. The results of our analyses are useful in the context of enhancing apple collection management, sampling of core collections, and improving breeding processes.