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Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Olive and Refined Pomace Olive Oils with Modified Low Temperature and Ultrasound-Assisted Liquid–Liquid Extraction Method Followed by the HPLC/FLD
- Taghvaee, Zohreh, Piravivanak, Zahra, Rezaei, Karamatollah, Faraji, Mohammad
- Food analytical methods 2016 v.9 no.5 pp. 1220-1227
- detection limit, equipment, fluorescence, liquid-liquid extraction, olive oil, olive pomace, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, solid phase extraction, solvents, temperature, ultrasonic treatment
- The cleanup method of modified low temperature was compared with the standardized method of modified ultrasound-assisted liquid–liquid (UALL) extraction for the analysis of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in olive oil and refined pomace olive oil. The modified UALL extraction consisted in purification on C₁₈ reversed-phase, Florisil-bonded-phase and NH₂ cartridges, and modified low-temperature extraction was followed by alumina-N and NH₂ solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Both methods are followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The chromatograms of the final extracts showed lower interferences in both of the methods. The solvent consumption and cost for the modified UALL method were higher than those of the modified low temperature, and also, it needed more equipment, but its analysis time was less. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation of the modified UALL method were 0.16–0.97 and 0.57–2.93 μg kg⁻¹, respectively, and for the modified low temperature, they were 0.09–1.97 and 0.29–5.99 μg kg⁻¹, respectively. The PAH recoveries for the modified UALL extraction method ranged from 75.0 to 111.0 % (RSD = 3–8 %), and for the modified low temperature, they ranged from 81.5 to 113.8 % (RSD = 3–10 %).