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Yogurt Enrichment with Grape Pomace: Effect of Grape Cultivar on Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Properties

Marchiani, Roberta, Bertolino, Marta, Belviso, Simona, Giordano, Manuela, Ghirardello, Daniela, Torri, Luisa, Piochi, Maria, Zeppa, Giuseppe
Journal of food quality 2016 v.39 no.2 pp. 77-89
acidity, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, byproducts, catechin, cultivars, flour, food industry, functional foods, gallic acid, grape pomace, grapes, lactic acid bacteria, lactose, nutritive value, pH, procyanidins, quercitrin, sensory properties, storage time, value added, waste management, winemaking, yogurt
Grape skin flours obtained from grape pomace of Chardonnay, Moscato and Pinot noir varieties were used as sources of polyphenolic compounds in yogurt formulation during 3 weeks of storage. Yogurt containing grape skin flour presented significantly higher total phenolic content (+55%), antioxidant activity (+80%) and acidity (+25%) whereas lower pH, syneresis (−10%) and fat (−20%) than control. Procyanidin B1 and vanillic acids were detected only in the yogurt added of Pinot noir flour while gallic acid, catechin and quercitrin were the major phenolic compounds found in the yogurts with Moscato or Chardonnay grape skins. Significant differences were highlighted for acidity and lactose content while total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and lactic acid bacteria trend were stable after production and storage. The liking test performed with consumers showed a loss of textural quality for yogurts fortified with grape skin flours. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Grape skin is a nutritious, but underused, by‐product of winemaking containing fiber and antioxidants. Using a suitable production design, a new fortified yogurt formulation with grape by‐product could be optimized for enhance antioxidant consumers’ daily intake. The use of grape skin flour in the development of value‐added food products will be a step toward making new functional foods, and partially solving waste management problem from wine production. The results of this study would provide an opportunity of dairy producer to develop a novel product in agreement with consumers’ preferences. This research represents a new approach in the development of novel dairy foods with high nutritional quality and with great potential applications on food industry.