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Assessment of Total (Free and Bound) Phenolic Compounds in Spent Coffee Extracts
- Monente, Carmen, Ludwig, Iziar A., Irgoyen, Angel, Pena, Maria-Paz de, Cid, Concepcion
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2015 v.63 no.17 pp. 4327-4334
- acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis, bioactive compounds, brewing, byproducts, caffeic acid, high performance liquid chromatography, melanoidins
- Spent coffee is the main byproduct of the brewing process and a potential source of bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic acids easily extracted with water. Free and bound caffeoylquinic (3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA), dicaffeoylquinic (3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA, 4,5-diCQA), caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, sinapic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were measured by HPLC, after the application of three treatments (alkaline, acid, saline) to spent coffee extracts. Around 2-fold higher content of total phenolics has been estimated in comparison to free compounds. Phenolic compounds with one or more caffeic acid molecules were approximately 54% linked to macromolecules such as melanoidins, mainly by noncovalent interactions (up to 81% of bound phenolic compounds). The rest of the quantitated phenolic acids were mainly attached to other structures by covalent bonds (62–97% of total bound compounds). Alkaline hydrolysis and saline treatment were suitable to estimate total bound and ionically bound phenolic acids, respectively, whereas acid hydrolysis is an inadequate method to quantitate coffee phenolic acids.