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Incomplete pole orientation of kinetochores in complex meiotic metaphase I configurations delays metaphase–anaphase transition in Secale

Sybenga, J.
Genome 2014 v.57 no.4 pp. 233-238
Secale cereale, anaphase, chiasmata, chromosome segregation, chromosome translocation, cohesion, heterozygosity, insects, kinetochores, mammals, metacentric chromosomes, metaphase
To prevent unbalanced chromosome segregation, meiotic metaphase I – anaphase I transition is carefully regulated by delaying anaphase until all kinetochores are well oriented (anaphase checkpoint) in mammals and insects. In plants this has not yet been established. In heterozygotes of two reciprocal translocations of Secale cereale, with one chromosome replaced by its two telocentric arms, anaphase delay was correlated with the orientation of the kinetochores of the complex of five chromosomes. The terminal kinetochores of the half chromosomes were readily elongated and pole oriented. Chains of five chromosomes with all five kinetochores orienting on alternate poles where the first to start anaphase. Kinetochores of two adjacent chromosomes when oriented on the same pole were partly shielded and less well pole directed. Anaphase was delayed. Cells with this configuration accumulated during anther development. Kinetochores in metacentric chromosomes lacking chiasmata in one arm (in trivalents and bivalents) were slightly better pole oriented and delayed anaphase less. Release of chromatid cohesion as triggered by kinetochore stretch is apparently delayed by inadequate exposition and pole orientation of the kinetochores. It is a mild form of an anaphase checkpoint, in normal material synchronizing bivalent segregation.