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Dynamic changes in carbohydrate metabolism and endogenous hormones during Tulipa edulis stolon development into a new bulb

Miao, Yuanyuan, Zhu, Zaibiao, Guo, Qiaosheng, Yang, Xiaohua, Liu, Li, Sun, Yuan, Wang, Changlin
Journal of plant biology = 2016 v.59 no.2 pp. 121-132
Tulipa edulis, abscisic acid, asexual reproduction, bulbs, carbohydrate content, carbohydrate metabolism, gibberellins, glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, greenhouse experimentation, hormones, indole acetic acid, morphogenesis, plant development, protein content, proteins, starch, starch synthase, stolons, sucrose, sucrose synthase, zeatin
The stolon is the main asexual reproductive organ of Tulipa edulis (Miq.) Baker. It has a special morphology and can develop into a new bulb for propagation. In the current greenhouse experiment, the dynamic changes in carbohydrates and related enzymes, protein and endogenous hormones during T. edulis stolon development were investigated. The results showed that soluble sugar levels were basically declining, whereas starch and protein content rose continuously during stolon development. The adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) activity peaked in the initial swelling stage and stayed a relative high level in the middle swelling stage; sucrose synthase (SS), soluble starch synthase (SSS) and granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) activities followed the same law that showed rising trends during stolon development. SS activity was significantly inversely related to sucrose content but had significantly positive relations with starch content, SSS and GBSS activities. Gibberellin (GA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and zeatin riboside (ZR) peaked in the initial swelling stage and maintained high levels in the middle swelling stage; they then decreased significantly in the later swelling stage. A substantial increase was observed in abscisic acid (ABA) content until the middle swelling stage, followed by a significant reduction in the later swelling stage. The ratios of ABA to IAA, GA and ZR reached their lowest levels in the initial swelling stage. In conclusion, T. edulis stolon development is a process of new bulb morphogenesis along with the starch accumulation catalyzed by AGPase, SSS and GBSS, using the product of sucrose cleavage caused by SS. Initial low ABA content and low ratios of ABA to IAA, GA and ZR, together with the GA, IAA and ZR of high-content, soluble sugars worked more efficiently to induce new bulb formation.